Damage, Loss, and Needs Assessment Guidance Notes.
This is a guideline for World Bank task team leaders (TTLs) entrusted with the design and execution of assessments to determine disaster impacts as well as post-disaster needs for recovery, reconstruction, and disaster risk reduction or management.
Assessments estimate, first, the short-term government interventions required to initiate recovery and second, the financial requirements to achieve overall post-disaster recovery, reconstruction, and disaster risk management or reduction. The end product of the assessment is a comprehensive program of recovery, reconstruction, and risk management that will guide all actions in a developing country following a disaster.
The damage and loss assessment (DaLA) methodology uses objective, quantitative information on the value of destroyed assets and temporary production losses to estimate, first, government interventions for the short term and second, post-disaster financing needs. The DaLA method ensures that the affected government, the United Nations and other international and domestic agencies jointly develop properly estimated and prioritized financial requirements and an accompanying formula that identifies all possible financial sources and modalities.
In addition, the estimation of the needs can be used as a basis to monitor post-disaster recovery and reconstruction progress.
The DaLA aim at operationalizing the concepts for practitioners at government agencies, the World Bank, and other national and international organizations, responsible for assessing the impact of disasters, and for developing recovery and reconstruction plans.
The guidance notes comprises of three volumes: (i) guideline for TTL in the design and execution of a damage, loss, and needs assessment, (ii) conducting damage and loss assessments after disasters, and (iii) estimation of post-disaster needs for recovery and reconstruction.
Volume 2. Conducting Damage and Loss Assessments after Disasters
Gaza Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment, June 2021
On May 20, 2021, after 11 days of the worst conflict since 2014, Israel and militants in Gaza agreed to a cessation of hostilities. Casualties were recorded on both sides, including more than 260 dead in Gaza according to the Palestinian Authority (PA) and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), along with considerable destruction of residential and commercial buildings.
While in Israel, 9 Israelis and 3 foreign workers were killed according to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In Gaza, the conflict damaged various core physical and digital infrastructure assets, particularly buildings, hospitals and health centers, water and sanitation facilities, and transport, energy and communications networks.
Exacerbated by previous trauma, this renewed round of violence having a particularly serious impact on children’s mental health as they are more susceptible to the effects of high levels of stress. Beyond the human tragedy and the subsequent immediate humanitarian relief that was channeled to Gaza, the economic impact of these 11 days of conflict has severely weakened an economy already reduced to a fraction of its potential.
Gaza is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with around 2.1 million individuals living in a total area of 365 square kilometers. For nearly 15 years, the movement of people and goods into and out of Gaza has been under restrictions imposed by the Government of Israel due to security concerns. This isolation, in addition to multiple episodes of conflict and a damaging internal political divide, has created a severe humanitarian situation in Gaza that was exacerbated by the recent hostilities.
Risk and Damage Information Management
In Japan, municipalities are mandated to produce hazard maps for floods, storm surges, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, stagnant water, and landslides to which the municipality may be exposed.
By combining exposure data with satellite images and aerial photographs, post-event damage assessments can be carried out with reasonable accuracy.
Japan’s experience with the disaster of March 2011 demonstrates that having exhaustive data on exposure expedites the damage assessment process, thereby reducing the time required for compensation payments and insurance payouts. Immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and tsunami, information on the damage caused by the disaster was collected rapidly and shared among responding agencies using a variety of top-down and bottom-up tools, including remotely sensed data, public and private datasets, and online tools such as the Ushahidi-based sinsai.info web site.
The data-collection and dissemination effort underpinned assistance to the affected population, timely allocation of resources to areas in need, and effective reconstruction planning. This report gives findings; lessons; and recommendations for developing countries.